The Stone Portals

©  Sergey Smelyakov

April, 2015 (Russian edition)

August, 2017 (English version)

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Chapter 1. Introduction

1.1. The goal of this work

1.1.1. Goal & fulcrum

1.1.2. Terminology

1.1.3. General Problem

1.2. Analytical properties of the Stone Portals

1.2.1. Integral and Differential properties

1.2.2. Geometry

1.2.3. Algebra

1.2.4. Archeoastronomy

1.2.5. Metrology


Decision-making criterion


Inverse problem of metrology


1.2.6. Statistics

1.2.7. Uniformity of Analytical properties

1.3. Esoterical Teaching as the conceptual basis in study of destination of Stone Portals

1.3.1. The cause of secrecy of Esoteric models

1.3.2. Uniformity and succession of Esoterical Knowledge

1.3.3. The veiled unity of Analytical and Esoterical models

1.4. General classification of Stone Portals

1.4.1. Preliminary considerations

Classes of artefacts that are considered in this study relative to their exterior

Conceptual reflection of ancient knowledge and spirituality

Substantial reflection of ancient knowledge and cults in Stone Portals


1.4.2. Labyrinths

Labyrinth as a cult-word

Labyrinth as an edifice

Labyrinth as grapheme, dike, and image

Occult meaning of Labyrinths (edifices and spircs)

1.4.3. Classification of Stone Portals relative to the exterior of artefacts

1.4.4. Terminology associated with the main classes of Edifices, Spircs and Point objects Edifices: Labyrinth-Temples Spircs: Shrines and Cult Images Lithospirc (Stone structure)

Cromlech (Megalithic monument)

Labyrinth-dike (stone labyrinth)

Stone Circle

Medicine Wheel (Sacred Hoop) Pictospirc (Image) Henge Geospirc Point objects Dolmen Cairn Menhir

Carnac stones

Spain, Armenia, India, Horn of Africa

Resume Deer stones Seid

Basic classes of stone seids

Lying boulder seids

Pedestalled boulder seids

Engineering and occult prerequisites for studying the stone seids

Seid as a Shrine and Stone Portal

Seid as a shrine

Seid as a Portal

Phenomenal stones Rocking stones Moving rocks

1.4.5. Historical evidences and Esoterical meaning of stone structures

1.5. General Structure of this work

Chapter 2. The Labyrinth-Temples and their Analytical and Occult Properties

Division I. Analytical aspects of calendars and stone artefact alignments

2.1. The Ecliptic and calendar aspects of astronomical alignments of stone artefacts

2.1.1. The Celestial coordinates, azimuths and current time Sun-based models Celestial coordinate systems Ecliptic Cardinal points: the Solstices and Equinoxes Celestial coordinates Tropical and Sidereal Zodiacs Precession of the Equinoxes Sunrise, Sunset and Zenithal Passage Alignments in Horizontal and Celestial coordinates Azimuths of sunrises and sunsets


Refractive shift of azimuth of rising Sun

Annual fluctuation of azimuth of rising Sun Accuracy of alignment-based identification of Sun coordinates

General description of the problem

Treating of azimuth of alignment


Survey line and beam-type alignments

Indicatory and measuring systems

Resume. Interrelations between the Sun’s azimuth and declination with its ecliptic longitude

Sunrise and sunset azimuths as a function of declination

Ecliptic longitude of the Sun as a function of its declination

Declination of the Sun as a function of its ecliptic longitude

Sunrise and sunset azimuths as the functions of ecliptic longitude of the Sun

Declination of the Sun at its zenithal passage

Rising and setting points of Ecliptic

Discussion Conjugate azimuths and points of Ecliptic

Conjugate azimuths

Conjugate longitudes

Number of annual observation events

Diurnal shift of sunrise/sunset azimuths

Resume Time count models The Apparent and “Model” Days The concepts of Solar and Sidereal days Sidereal time The apparent solar day and time The mean solar day and time The equation of time Civil and local time

2.1.2. The calendars that were employed and could have been used by the prehistoric cultures The problem of reconstruction of ancient calendars and the Stone Portals Statement of the Problem A calendar in the narrow and in the broad sense Cyclic and non-cyclic calendars

Cyclic calendars

Symbolic calendars

Solar and Lunar calendars

Non-cyclic calendars The types of calendars re to tracking of the calendar cycle

Astronomical (observation-based) calendar

Arithmetic calendar Astronomy and calendars in the concepts of Maya

Maya and their neighbours in Mesoamerica

Maya astronomy

Maya astronomical codices

Astronomical alignments as observatories


Religion and Calendars Solar calendars Types of Solar calendars

Tropical solar calendars


The Sidereal year and day

The Anomalistic year

The Draconitic year, Eclipse year or Ecliptic year

A Heliacal year

The Sothic year

Variation in the length of the year and the day Tropical year in arithmetic and astronomic (observational) calendars

Tropical year

Vernal equinox year The arithmetic Solar calendars

The Julian calendar

The Gregorian calendar

Mayan Arithmetic “quasi-solar” calendar The astronomic Solar calendars Resume Lunar calendars Intra-month lunar calendars

Lunar days of Synodic month

Nakshatras – Lunar days of Sidereal month

Lunar periods in Zodiacal Signs Lunar years as multi-month lunar calendars

Lunar year in Lunar calendars

Purely” lunar calendars

Islamic calendars

Sidereal lunar year

Lunisolar calendar

Chinese zodiac (Calendar)


Maya Moon calendars

Lunar days

Count of Lunations Resume Numerical parameters of lunar Months

Sidereal month

Tropical month

Anomalistic month.

Draconic (nodical) month

Synodic month Longer Moon Cycles

Full moon cycle


Matching synodic and anomalistic months

Metonic cycle

Apsidal precession

Draconic (or nodal) period of lunar precession

The Eclipse cycles

The Saros cycle

Three Saros cycles

Saros Series Symbolic (ritual) calendars



Calendar Round

Long Count

Julian day (date) Supplementary Series

9-day cycle of Lords of the Night

819-day cycle

Five Suns

2.1.3. Gregorian date is inadequate for precise identification of the day when the Sun fits an astronomical alignment of Pyramid or other stone artefact On importance of Solstices and Equinoxes On importance of Auric cardinal (A-cardinal) points Identification of the day of alignment in astronomical (observation-based) calendar

The moment of observation and the Day of alignment

Astronomical destination of alignments

Calendrical destination of alignments Uncertainty of the day of alignment in arithmetical calendar Allowing for seasonal variation in Sun’s ecliptic velocity Zone time Discussion

Astronomical calendars

The Gregorian calendar


2.1.4. On reconstruction of ancient measures and analytical features of labyrinth-temples

The synthesis of analytical and occult properties of labyrinth-temples

The general aspects of analytical properties

The accepted concepts relative to analytical properties of pyramids

2.1.5. The Great Pyramid template

The Great Pyramid in Giza

The Great Pyramid template (GP-template)

2.1.6. On principles of prehistoric metrology The ancient and prehistoric measures of length Integer-commensurable units of length Irrational commensurability of units of length Comparing the units against the sides of the GP-template The ancient measures presenting the GP-conjugate units

π-conjugate measures

Φ-conjugate measures Algebraic structure of the GP-template of prehistoric units

GP-template of the prehistoric units

Accuracy of co-relating the units

Commeasurable groups of units GP-template as a tool for transformation of lengths and distances On selection of units in analysis of prehistoric stone complexes and structures Units

Simultaneous use of several units

International” nature of the GM-template of prehistoric units

Hypothesis relative to the use of “Circular” measures

Hypothesis relative to the use of “Golden section” measures

Resume Dimensions (the absolute sizes and their dimensions and ratios) Correlations

2.1.7. The Earth-based units of length revealed in the dimensions of Stone Portals An overview on geographic coordinate system Meridian and Latitudinal distances on the sphere Meridian and Latitudinal distances on the ellipsoid

Division II. The Labyrinth-temples


2.2. The Great (or Egyptian) Labyrinth

2.3. The Great Pyramid in Giza

2.4. The putative Greek and Roman Labyrinth-temples

2.5. The Mayan Analogues of Egyptian Labyrinth

2.5.1. Mayan Labyrinth-temples

The Labyrinth of Tonina

The Labyrinth of Oxkintok

2.5.2. The sacred cenotes of Maya

The Sacred Cenote in Chichén Itza

Note relative a relative validity of accepted opinions re to the Indigenous beliefs in America

2.5.3. The sacred caves of Maya


Cave temple complex at Tahtzibichen


2.6. Pyramids of Mesoamerica

2.6.1. The Great Pyramid of Cholula History and general design


The pyramid

Excavation history

Current importance Geographical allocation and orientation of the pyramid Astronomical alignments of the Great Pyramid of Cholula

Model Cholula-1. The Cholula Pyramid faces are aligned to sunset and sunrise on Solstices

Orion and Venus Geometrical and geographical resemblance between the Great Pyramids of Cholula and Giza

Model Cholula-2. Estimation of the overall design and sizes of the Pyramid of Cholula

The half-base to height ratio of the Cholula Pyramid approximates the value of π

The squared ratio of fourfold height to half-base of Cholula Pyramid approximates Ф

Model Cholula-3. Metrology of the Great Pyramid of Cholula

Model Cholula-4. Perimeter of the Great Pyramid of Cholula makes 1 arc min of Longitude More on Esoterical aspects of the Great Pyramid of Cholula

2.6.2. The Complex of Teotihuacan History, make-up and site layout


Site layout

Measurement units and dimensions in the design of Teotihuacan and its objects

The Pyramid of the Sun

The Pyramid of the Moon

The Temple of the Feathered Serpent and the Ciudadela complex Esoterical aspects of the pyramids of Teotihuacan Metrological, geometrical and geographical aspects of the Pyramid of the Sun

Model SunPyramid-1. Metrology of the Pyramid of the Sun

Model SunPyramid-2. Perimeter of the Sun Pyramid makes ½ arc min of local grid Astronomical alignments of Teotihuacan and its pyramids Teotihuacan

Model Teotihuacan-1. The constant Pi in ecliptic longitude of the Sun at zenithal passage

Model Teotihuacan-2. Golden section in sunrise and sunset azimuths on days of Zenial passage Astronomical alignments of the Pyramid of the Sun

Model SunPyramid-3. The Sun Pyramid is aligned to sunset and sunrise of A-cardinal Sun

Model SunPyramid-4. Equinoctial alignment of the Pyramid of the Sun Geographical and astronomical alignments of Sun-Moon Pyramid system

Model Sun-MoonPyramid-1. The Sun-Moon pyramid system comply with the elliptic model of geoid

Coordinates of the Sun and Moon pyramid centres

Linear distance between the Sun and Moon pyramid centres

The sizes of Sun and Moon pyramid summits

Model Sun-MoonPyramid-2. The Sun-Moon pyramid observatory

Allocation of Moon and Sun Pyramid summits relative to meridian

The Sun-Moon Pyramid observatory: the scale of azimuths in degrees

The Sun-Moon Pyramid observatory: the scale of azimuths in minutes Astronomical alignment of the Ciudadela, Temple of Quetzalcoatl and Plaza of the Moon

Model Ciudadela-Feathered Serpent. The sunrises and sunsets at Ciudadela sides define the Golden section of Ecliptic General aspects of Teotihuacan and Mesoamerican alignments

Model Teotihuacan-3. On the essence of typical orientations of Mesoamerican pyramids

Model A-cardinal Points. The Sun Pyramid alignment defines the A-cardinal points which are repeated in other Mesoamerican and European alignments and calendar systems

2.6.3. The antiquity and greatness of Maya pyramids, and their commonality with other Portals

The Pyramid of Holmul

El Mirador, the Pyramid La Danta

On the commonality of mythological and occult properties of Labyrinth-temples and images

2.6.4. Solar effects in pyramids of Maya Temple of Kukulcan: the serpent crawling on the Equinox Temple of inscriptions: at the Winter Solstice the sunbeam penetrates into the crypt The pyramid Cinco Pisos repeats the alignments of the Pyramid of the Sun

2.6.5. Resume

2.7. Sacral subterranean temples in India

2.7.1. A crypt in the Padmanabhaswamy Temple

2.7.2. Rock-cut temples

Ajanta Caves

Bagh Caves

Karla Caves

Ellora Caves

The Kailashnath Temple

Elephanta Caves

The Shiva Cave

2.7.3. Occult destination of Cave complexes and subterranean crypts in India Occult destination of Cave complexes

Rock-cut dwellings

Secret libraries

The Esoteric Temples and covert universities

The underground shrines for supreme initiation Cave temples and pyramids Bagh caves: an example of internal structure of cave complex

2.8. The quenchless (or perpetually-burning) lamps

2.9. The Passage mounds

2.9.0. Introduction

Why we introduce the term “Passage mound”

On the hypothesis relative to the sepulchral destination of the Passage Mounds

Passage mound alignments

Esoterical aspects of passage mounds

Dating of the stone artefacts

2.9.1. Ireland Brú na Bóinne

Antiquity and make-up


Astronomy Newgrange

Physical description



General purpose

From temple to occult shrine

Esoteric symbolism

Analytical features

Astronomical alignment Knowth


Megalithic art

Alignments Dowth


Dowth North

Dowth South

Art at Dowth


Dowth South is aligned to the WS sunset

Dowth North is oriented to Samhain and Imbolc sunsets

Conclusion Listoghil (Carrowmore)

Listoghil is oriented to Samhain and Imbolc sunrises Loughcrew, Cairn L is oriented to Samhain and Imbolc sunrises



Resume Mound of the Hostages

The Hill of Tara

Mound of the Hostages is oriented to Samhain and Imbolc sunrises Carrowkeel Cairn G is aligned to the SS sunset Low entrance pass and font of initiation

2.9.2. Passage mounds in other regions of the world British islands


Bryn Celli Ddu

La Hougue Bie Spain

Antequera Dolmens Site

Dolmen of Viera

Dolmen of Menga

Tholos de El Romeral Overviews of types and images of the Passage mounds and similar structures

2.9.3. Passage mounds in Russia Megaliths in the Urals. Vera Island

Dolmens of the Middle Urals


Vera Island Passage mound in Vlasovka, Voronezh Region Passage mound in the Kozelsk, Kaluga region

Division III. The Auric cardinal points in alignments and calendars of America and Europe

2.10. The structure of the Tropical Celtic Calendar

2.10.1. Astronomical and Esoterical attainments of the Celts The Celts Astronomy Esotery

Early Irish Astrology

The Druids

Astronomy, mounds and Esotery

2.10.2. The Celtic calendars

The prehistoric Celtic calendar

Gaulish Coligny calendar (or Continental Celtic calendar)

The tropical nature of Celtic festivals

The (tropical) Gaelic (or Irish) calendar

Contemporary dates of the Celtic seasonal festivals

Inadequacy of contemporary dates of Celtic festivals


2.10.3. The crucial days of the Celtic Tropical calendar relative to the Celtic calendar tradition Samhain




Halloween Beltane

Esotery/Popular magic

Modern times

Astronomy and stone structures.

Walpurgis Night Imbolc



Astronomy and Passage mounds Lughnasadh Concentration of American and Eurasian festivals at the A-cardinal points of Ecliptic

2.11. Auric-cardinal alignment of the Ireland Passage mounds

2.11.1. On the calculation of the time and days of the Celtic festivals

The concept of identification of the Celtic day (C-day) of festival

Calculation of the C-days of festivals for Dublin and Mexico City

* The Gregorian dates and time of Celtic festivals for Dublin and Mexico City

2.11.2. Testing of hypothesis re to Mound of the Hostages alignment to A-cardinal positions of Sun On the goal of correlating alignments with the ecliptic longitude of the Sun The offered hypotheses relative to the azimuthal alignment of the Mound Testing of the hypotheses by the shootings of Light effects Testing of the hypotheses by the drawing of the Mound and Sun motion Azimuthal alignment of the mound corresponds to the Primal hypothesis Identifying the day of azimuth alignment by the shift of sunrise azimuth Identifying the day of azimuth alignment by the variation in height of the Sun Identifying the day of azimuth alignment by the megalithic marker Lia Fail


2.11.3. The Auric relationship of the Gregorian calendar with the Signs of the Tropical Zodiac, the astronomical calendar of the Celts, and the astronomically-calendar alignments of the Passage Mounds and the Pyramid of the Sun Preface (Statement of the problem) The ratio which defines splitting of Gregorian month by starting point of Zodiac Sign

The fragment ratios for 2014 – 2016

Analysis of Sign ratios for 2013 – 2016

Analytical presentation of the Fragment ratio Celtic analogue of the ratio of fragments Analytical properties of the Celtic tropical and Gregorian calendars Resume

2.11.4. Resume relative to prehistoric Celtic Tropical calendar and its crucial days Celtic calendars The days of Celtic festivals The azimuthal alignment of the Mound of the Hostages

2.12. Conclusion

2.12.1. Design peculiarities of the labyrinth-temples

2.12.2. Occult destination of the labyrinth-temples

2.12.3. Astronomy, metrology and math of the labyrinth-temples

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